Nanni v Pace and the Sovereign Order of Malta Italian Court of Cassation

The order was established during the Crusades as a nursing brotherhood and military organisation directed against the Moslems. The order established its headquarter in Rome in 1834. It has performed humanitarian work. [Compare Texaco (1977)]

It is impossible to deny to [the order and] other international collective units a limited capacity of acting internationally within the ambit and the actual exercise of their own functions with the resulting international juridical personality and capacity which is necessary and natural corollary… such personality was never denied to the Holly See and it is unanimously conceded to the League of Nations, it is equally conceded to certain international administrative unions.