Caire Claim French Mexican Claims Commission

Caire a French national was killed in Mexico by Mexican soldiers, from the section of General Tomas Urbina, after they had demanded money from him [Compare to Home Missionary 1920] [Compare to Corfu 1949]

Responsibility of Mexico for actions of individual military personal, acting without orders or against the wishes of their commanding officers and independently of the needs and aims of the revolution… I am interpreting in accordance with the doctrine of the ‘objective responsibility’ [without breach of good faith] responsibility for the acts of officials or organs of a State, which may devolve upon it, even in the absent of any ‘fault’ on its own… Acts committed by the officials and agents of a state entail the international responsibility of that state, even if the perpetrator did not have specific authorisation… But in order to be able to admit this so called ‘objective responsibility’ of the state for acts committed by its officials, they must have act at least to all appearances as competent officials or organs, or they must have used powers or methods appropriated to their official capacity